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Neighborhood Pub and Grill. First post Jan-4-22

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#1 2022-09-21 13:45:50

.
Dust in the wind.

SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

essentially originate from this book:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Secre … s_and_Jews

Which was put out by the Nation of Islam and later academically debunked.

ahaa

#2 2022-09-21 13:47:03

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

. wrote:

essentially originate from this book:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Secre … s_and_Jews

Which was put out by the Nation of Islam and later academically debunked.

ahaa

It's no secret akins is full of shit and a lying fraud.

#3 2022-09-21 13:53:38

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

P.S. And this is the book that debunked the idea that Jews were disproportionately involved over Whites:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews_and_ … lave_Trade

#4 2022-09-21 13:53:55

Southern Gentry
Official Arbiter of F4 Policy
Registered: 2022-01-04
Posts: 1,488,867

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

There is no debunking the fact that Jews were involved up to their eyeballs in the transatlantic slave trade.

"Dat sho nuff sounds like fun!"           "You'll love it!"
                          \                                   /
A3BcYLc.jpg

#5 2022-09-21 14:03:27

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Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

^^^

Not much of a robust defence of assertions in an academic publication  🤣

#6 2022-09-21 14:15:18

Diesel_Dawg
FUCK YOU!
Registered: 2022-01-07
Posts: 3,030

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

I want to suck Farrakhan's BBC.


Fuck You!

#7 2022-09-21 14:21:07

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

. wrote:

essentially originate from this book:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Secre … s_and_Jews

Which was put out by the Nation of Islam and later academically debunked.

If you fact check Atkin's writing you'll see it's largely wikipedia copypasta. Another sign he's a troll.

#8 2022-09-21 14:26:23

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

. wrote:
. wrote:

essentially originate from this book:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Secre … s_and_Jews

Which was put out by the Nation of Islam and later academically debunked.

If you fact check Atkin's writing you'll see it's largely wikipedia copypasta. Another sign he's a troll.

He would be trolling if he did not actually believe the bullshit he posts. He's a 100% certifiably psychotic narcissist who truly believes the fraudulent bullshit he posts.

#9 2022-09-21 14:27:45

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

. wrote:
. wrote:

essentially originate from this book:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Secre … s_and_Jews

Which was put out by the Nation of Islam and later academically debunked.

If you fact check Atkin's writing you'll see it's largely wikipedia copypasta. Another sign he's a troll.

sg sometimes copies and pastes from wiki but 99 percent of what he posts is all original.

only a true intellect is capable of that. thumbup

#10 2022-09-21 14:27:51

Southern Gentry
Official Arbiter of F4 Policy
Registered: 2022-01-04
Posts: 1,488,867

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

. wrote:

^^^

Not much of a robust defence of assertions in an academic publication  🤣


You want the full lecture? Very well....


Following the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, and from Portugal in 1497, many Sephardic Jews living in those countries sought to avoid expulsion under the pretext of ostensibly converting to Catholicism and becoming known as conversos or marranos, while others emigrated to the Dutch Republic. There they called themselves gente del linaje ("People of the [Jewish] lineage"), or homens da nação, ("Men of the [Jewish-Portuguese] Nation").

When Christopher Columbus set out on his voyage in search of a transatlantic passage to Asia. Columbus embarked on his journey across the ocean on August 3, 1492, the day after King Ferdinand II expelled the Jews from Spain. Along with Columbus came a number of Jews who formed a part of his crew. There was Marco, the surgeon; Bernal, the physician; Luis de Torres, (born Yosef ben HaLevi HaIvri) the expedition's interpreter, who was the first man ashore and the first to discover the use of tobacco; along with Luis de Santangel and Gabriel Sanchez, both Jews, who arranged for the financing of Columbus' expedition. Additionally Columbus relied heavily upon the technical expertise of Abraham Zacuto, a famed Jewish astronomer, and Joseph Vecinho, the Portuguese Jew who published a translation of Zacuto's astronomical tables, which helped Columbus to navigate the "Ocean Sea".

The discovery of the New World opened up new economic opportunities to Jewish merchants who built their fortunes on importing and selling commodities in the Old World markets to Europeans who were eager consumers of exotic goods and produce from foreign lands. Coffee, a plant native to Ethiopia was a highly prized treasure by the Ottomans who shipped coffee from Yemen to Suez, then transported it by camel to Alexandria. From there, merchants operating in France and Venice supplied the Middle East and Europe; many of these traders, particularly those from Venice, were Jewish. So profitable was coffee as a commodity that the Ottomans forbade anyone from exporting coffee trees or viable seeds. The only coffee seeds they allowed out of Yemen had to be roasted, preventing them from being grown elsewhere.

In the 1600s, Jewish smugglers in the Dutch East India Company managed to take un-cooked coffee seeds out of Yemen, growing them in India. In 1616, a Dutch Jew managed to smuggle a whole coffee tree out of Aden and transport it to Holland. Soon, coffee was being grown in a number of Dutch colonies, including Ceylon, Java, Sumatra, Timor and Bali. For years, the Netherlands controlled the international coffee market. Jewish merchants, who were already familiar with the coffee trade, began to sell coffee directly to the public in coffee houses: a new invention by Jews in Europe.

As coffee drinking reached Europe, it was Jewish merchants who brought the beverage to new cities. The first coffee house in Europe was opened in 1632 in Livorno, Italy, by a Jewish merchant. England’s first coffee house was the Angel Inn in Oxford, opened in 1650 by an immigrant from Lebanon who was known as “Jacob the Jew”. Four years later, a Jew named Cirques Jobson opened a second Oxford coffee house, the Queen’s Lane Coffee House, the oldest still-running coffee house anywhere in the world. Their coffee houses later evolved into some of London's oldest mercantile institutions such as Lloyd's Coffeehouse (Lloyds of London), and Jonathan's Coffeehouse (which became the London Stock Exchange).

The Netherlands gained independence from Spain in 1648 as a result of the Eighty Years War, during which time a considerable number of marrano Jewish merchants settled in London and formed there a secret congregation, at the head of which was Antonio Fernandez Carvajal. They conducted a large business with the Levant, East and West Indies, Canary Islands, and Brazil, and above all with the Netherlands, Spain, and Portugal. Jews owned controlling stock in the Dutch West India Company, which sent 200 Jews to colonize Brazil in 1642. By 1646, approximately fifteen hundred Jewish inhabitants resided in the areas of northeastern Brazil controlled by the Dutch, where they established two congregations and employed the first rabbi in the Americas. Among the most lucrative crops grown on the Jews' Brazilian plantations were coffee and sugar cane, the cultivation of which led to the importation of many African slaves to South America, whose toil and labor on the Jews' coffee and sugar plantations made their owners fabulously rich. As the ritual of coffee drinking became fashionable in Europe, it provided the Jews with additional mercantile opportunities as sellers of other goods associated with the custom: silver and porcelain coffee services, china cups and saucers imported initially from the Far East, but later produced in Europe itself and exported to the American colonies in the 1700s.

Among the members of the governing body of the Dutch West India Company were a number of wealthy Sephardic Jewish merchants who had become shareholders in the venture, having contributed more than thirty-six thousand guilders to the colony's initial capital. By 1658 these included: Abram Isaac Perera, Andres Cristoffel Nunes, Abrara Isaac Bueno, Bento Osorio, Joseph d'Acosta, Louys Rodrigues de Sousa, and Ferdinando Dias de Britto. By April 1658 they were joined by their fellow Jews: Francisco Vaz de Crasto, Francisco lopo Henriques, Balth'r Alvares Naugera, Josepho de los Bios, Ruij Gommes Frontiera, Aron Chamis Vaz, Dionis Jennis, Diego Vaz de Sousa. The foregoing names are indicated as Jewish by a different style of writing than the other names in the lists, the 1656 list having the word "Jooden" or "Joode" opposite the names of Perera, Nunnes, Bueno and Osorio, and a later list in 1671 mentioning some of the other names as those of Jews. For March 1671 the following names occur under the heading of "Hebreen," or "Hebrews": Abraham Isaac Perera, Simon Louis Rodrigues de Souza, Aaron Chamiz Vaz, Jacob de Pinto, Jeronimo Nunes da Costa, Jacomo Fernando Ozorio, and Abraham Cohen.

When their colony in Recife, Brazil, fell to the Portuguese, the Jews fled from the Portuguese Inquisition in Brazil and headed for the Dutch West India Company's colony of New Amsterdam in what is now New York, in 1655. The Dutch governor of New Amsterdam wrote to the board of Directors asking for permission to expel the Jews from the New Amsterdam colony because of their unscrupulous trade practices which were hurting gentile-owned businesses in the colony, and the directors of the Dutch West India Company told Stuyvesant that there was nothing they could do, that the Jews were to be allowed to stay there because the Dutch West India Company was controlled by Jewish stock-holders.

Having been prevented by ordinances issued by Governor Stuyvesant from engaging in the domestic economy, the Jews quickly discovered that the territory inhabited by the Indians would be a fertile field. There were no laws preventing the Jews from trading with the Indians. In 1656 a Sephardic Jew named Jacob Lumbrozo arrived in Maryland and established himself as a plantation-owner, merchant, Indian-trader, and a medical doctor. By 1661 Asser Levy, a Dutch Jew who arrived in New Amsterdam in 1654, established a trading post in Albany, New York, where he engaged in commerce with the Indians and other colonists.

As early as the reign of Henry VIII, Jewish Hebrew scholars had been openly welcomed in England by the king in the hope that they would help him find the Biblical loophole through which he could extricate himself from his marital complications. Henry VIII also imported members of the Bassanos and Lupos families - renowned Venetian Jewish dynasties of musicians - to perform at his court. Occasionally (particularly in 1542) "Spanish" merchants in Tudor England were arrested on the suspicion of being Jews - but individuals still managed to operate tacitly unacknowledged as Jews in trade hubs such as London and Bristol.

As the Tudor period moved into Elizabeth's reign, it became less dangerous to be thought a Jew than a Spaniard and some of these Jewish merchants chose to declare outright their Jewishness, though usually with some allusion to having converted. These Elizabethan Jews were often well-known London personalities in the time of Marlowe and Shakespeare, and undoubtedly inspired Jewish characters in their plays. A Sephardic Jew, Rodrigo Lopez, often quoted as the inspiration for Shylock, served as the court physician to Queen Elizabeth, who doubly appreciated his knowledge of and lack of affection for her Spanish enemies. Nonetheless, Lopez eventually fell foul of Elizabethan court politics and was hung, drawn and quartered, though Elizabeth herself was reluctant to do so.

The universities in Oxford and Cambridge availed themselves of several notable visiting Hebrew scholars in the late 16th and early 17th century. Many of these presented themselves as converts, often blithely shifting from continental Catholicism to English Protestantism. The Italian Jewish scholar Emmanuel Tremellius lived in Lambeth Palace with Archbishop Cranmer before becoming the Regius professor of Hebrew at Cambridge, and Philip Ferdinand taught at both Oxford and Cambridge as a "convert" before returning to become professor of Hebrew at Leiden. Some refused to feign conversion.

The Bohemian mining expert Joachim Gaunse (Gans) became the first Jew in North America when he  accompanied Walter Raleigh's expedition in 1585 to the coast of Virginia and the Outer Banks, with the intent of exploring mining possibilities in England's New World colonies. Gaunse did not remain in the Americas, but returned to England to revolutionize its copper mining industry, settling in the town of  Bristol where he gave Hebrew lessons to English gentlemen who wanted to read the Bible in its original tongue. Later, the Caballist Alonzo de Herrera, and the Sephardic Rabbi Simon Palache visited openly as practicing Jews.

In the 1650s, Menasseh Ben Israel, a rabbi and leader of the Jewish community residing in the Netherlands, sent emissaries and a silver salver as a gift to Oliver Cromwell. But negotiations were disrupted by the breakout of war between Britain and Holland between 1652-54. As soon as hostilities ceased, Menasseh renewed negotiations with a proposition that in exchange for covering Cromwell's debts incurred over the English Civil War, that the Jews should at be readmitted to England. In 1655 Cromwell summoned a national conference of lawyers, clergymen and merchants to Whitehall to consider the petition and the lawyers could find no reason to deny Jews re-entry, Cromwell agreed, and while Menasseh's petition to re-admit the Jews was never actually brought to the vote, Cromwell made it clear that bans against the Jews would no longer be enforced and supported the Jews informally by asserting that they could practice their religion discretely as long as they made no attempt to proselytize.

A small group of long-time resident crypto-Jewish merchants of London were allowed to purchase land for a Jewish cemetery in 1657 (among them, Antonio Fernadez Carvajal, a major dealer in cochineal, gunpowder and silver who had advanced large sums to Parliament and provided Cromwell with significant information against the Dutch during the war, and Simon de Caceres, another useful merchant with extensive interests in the West Indies and Spanish South America). Solomon Dormido, Menasseh ben Israel's nephew, was allowed to become a licensed broker in the City of London without having to take the usual Christian oaths of the Royal Exchange.

By 1690 about 400 Jews had settled in England, bearing such names as Aguilar, Botha, Costa, de Sola, d'Almeida, Gideon, Guedalla, Henriques, Lindo, Lousada, Mendes, Mendoza, Mocatto, Nabarro, Nieto, Pereira, Rey, Ricardo, and Sarmento. In 1662, Englishman John Greenhalgh, having visited the synagogue of the Jews recently settled in London, described them to his friend John Crompton in a letter, saying:

"When I was in the Synagogue I counted about or above a hundred right Jews....they were all merchants, I saw not one manual laborer of them; most of them rich in apparel, divers with jewels glittering (for they are the richest jewellers of any)....They are generally black so as they may be distinguished from Spaniards or native Greeks, for the Jews hair hath a deeper tincture of a more perfect raven black, they have a quick piercing eye, and look as if of strong intellectuals.

By the early 1600s, there had been several attempts to establish a permanent British colony in North America for the purpose of securing material riches from the New World. The first of these, the Roanoke colony, chartered by Sir Walter Raleigh in what is now North Carolina in 1584, failed, as had the Popham colony which was established in New England in what is now Maine in 1607 by the Plymouth Company, while the Jamestown Colony, also established in 1607 by the London Company in Virginia survived. Because of the failure of the Popham colony in New England, which had been abandoned by 1608, the shares of the Plymouth Company held by its stockholders had plummeted in value. This situation did not go unnoticed by a certain group of financial opportunists who called themselves the Company of Merchant Adventurers, which by that time had become heavily infiltrated by Jewish speculators who held a hegemony in trading and finance which covered much of Europe and extended overseas.

It was to the Company of Merchant Adventurers that the group of religious dissenters known as the Pilgrims went looking for financial backing, indenturing themselves to them as colonial laborers in return for the Merchant Adventurers covering the cost of their chartered passage to the New World, where the Pilgrims hoped to settle on a tract of land that they had obtained a charter for in the colony of Virginia from the London Company. Having at their disposal a group of earnest and willing laborers who had indentured themselves as colonists, the Company of Merchant Adventurers saw the opportunity to buy up stock in the failed Plymouth Company of New England at a bargain, and then develop a colony in New England by using the Pilgrims as the colony's laborers, which meant that the Pilgrims ended up being settled not in their intended destination at the mouth of the Hudson River in what was then part of the Virginia colony, but much further to the north on the cold and stony shores of Massachusetts. Thus New England was established by means of the unscrupulous conniving and deception of ruthless, manipulative, Jewish financial speculators.

In 1621 a Jew by the name of Elias Legarde arrived in Jamestown, Virginia, aboard the ship Abigail, having been brought over from France by Anthonie Bonall to assist in the wine-making industry begun by some of the early colonists of Virginia. In 1649 a Sephardic Jew named Solomon Franco arrived in Massachusetts from the Netherlands as an agent for Immanuel Perada, a Jewish merchant based in Holland. Franco had been sent to Boston to deliver supplies ordered by Edward Gibbons, a major general in the Massachusetts militia. When Franco attempted to collect payment from Gibbons for delivering the ordered goods, Gibbons refused saying that he had already paid Franco's employer, Immanuel Perada, for both the merchandise and the cost of shipping. The Massachusetts General Court ruled on May 6, 1649 that Franco was to be expelled from the colony, granting him "six shillings per week out of the Treasury for ten weeks, for sustenance, till he can get his passage to Holland."

As early as 1658 some of the Jews who had gone to England began migrating to the North American colonies, settling in Newport, Rhode Island; Boston, New York and Philadelphia, as well as Richmond, Virginia and Charleston, South Carolina. Fifteen Jewish families arrived in Rhode Island from Holland, in 1658, bringing with them the first three degrees of Freemasonry. A congregation was organized in Newport that same year under the name Jeshuat Israel. In 1684 the General Assembly of Rhode Island, in reply to a petition of the Jews, affirmed the right of the latter to settle in the colony, declaring that "they may expect as good protection here as any stranger being not of our nation residing among us in his Majesty's Colony ought to have, being obedient to his Majesty's laws."

Among the members of the governing body of the Dutch West India Company were a number of wealthy Sephardic Jewish merchants who had become shareholders in the venture, having contributed more than thirty-six thousand guilders to the colony's initial capital. By 1658 these included: Abram Isaac Perera, Andres Cristoffel Nunes, Abrara Isaac Bueno, Bento Osorio, Joseph d'Acosta, Louys Rodrigues de Sousa, and Ferdinando Dias de Britto. By April 1658 they were joined by their fellow Jews: Francisco Vaz de Crasto, Francisco lopo Henriques, Balth'r Alvares Naugera, Josepho de los Bios, Ruij Gommes Frontiera, Aron Chamis Vaz, Dionis Jennis, Diego Vaz de Sousa. The foregoing names are indicated as Jewish by a different style of writing than the other names in the lists, the 1656 list having the word "Jooden" or "Joode" opposite the names of Perera, Nunnes, Bueno and Osorio, and a later list in 1671 mentioning some of the other names as those of Jews. For March 1671 the following names occur under the heading of "Hebreen," or "Hebrews": Abraham Isaac Perera, Simon Louis Rodrigues de Souza, Aaron Chamiz Vaz, Jacob de Pinto, Jeronimo Nunes da Costa, Jacomo Fernando Ozorio, and Abraham Cohen.

According to an interview given by Orthodox Rabbi Lody van de Kamp to the Jewish Telegraphic Agency newspaper on December 26, 2013: “Money was earned by Jewish communities in South America, partly through slavery, and went to Holland, where Jewish bankers handled it....In one area of what used to be Dutch Guyana, 40 Jewish-owned plantations were home to a total population of at least 5,000 slaves,” he says. “Known as the Jodensavanne, or Jewish Savannah, the area had a Jewish community of several hundred before its destruction in a slave uprising in 1832. Nearly all of them immigrated to Holland, bringing their accumulated wealth with them."

They came with ships carrying African blacks to be sold as slaves. The traffic in slaves was a royal monopoly, and the Jews were often appointed as agents for the Crown in their sale. They were the largest ship chandlers in the entire Caribbean region, where the shipping business was mainly a Jewish enterprise. The ships were not only owned by Jews, but were manned by Jewish crews and sailed under the command of Jewish captains.

The West India Company, which monopolized imports of slaves from Africa, sold slaves at public auctions against cash payment. It happened that cash was mostly in the hands of Jews. The buyers who appeared at the auctions were almost always Jews, and because of this lack of competitors they could buy slaves at low prices. On the other hand, there also was no competition in the selling of the slaves to the plantation owners and other buyers, and most of them purchased on credit payable at the next harvest in sugar. Profits up to 300 percent of the purchase value were often realized with high interest rates.

On the Caribbean island of Curacao, Dutch Jews may have accounted for the resale of at least 15,000 slaves landed by Dutch transatlantic traders, according to Seymour Drescher, a Jewish historian at the University of Pittsburgh. Jews were so influential in those colonies that slave auctions scheduled to take place on Jewish holidays often were postponed, according to Marc Lee Raphael, a professor of Judaic studies at the College of William & Mary.

The arrival of the first blacks to set foot in North America was recorded by John Rolfe of Jamestown, Virginia, in his 1619 letter to Sir Edwin Sandys, wherein he related that "About the latter end of August, a Dutch man-of-war of the burden of a 160 tons arrived at Point-Comfort . . . He brought not any thing but 20 and odd Negroes, which the Governor and Cape Merchant bought for victualls (whereof he was in great need as he pretended) at the best and easyest rates they could." Evidence suggests that the twenty Africans had been taken in a raid of a Spanish ship bound for Mexico, and that upon their arrival in Jamestown they were baptized as Christians and thereafter treated as any of the other indentured servants in the colony.

It was not until 1655 that slavery for life became a legally sanctioned institution in the North American colonies. In that year, Anthony Johnson, a free black Angolian who had been brought to Virginia as an indentured servant and who had worked off his term of indenture years earlier, went to court over the ownership of a black servant named John Casor, who Johnson claimed ownership of saying that Casor had been sold to him as his slave for life. Corroborating testimony in the case was provided by a Jewish merchant named Capt. Samuel Goldsmith, with the court deciding in Johnson's favor, legally recognizing John Casor as his slave for life, setting the precedent for lifetime slave ownership in the colonies of North America; a peculiar institution that Jewish sea-faring merchants and traders soon found extremely profitable. For a time, free black people could even "own" the services of White indentured servants in Virginia as well. Free blacks owned slaves in Boston by 1724 and in Connecticut by 1783; by 1790, 48 black people in Maryland owned 143 slaves. One particularly notorious black Maryland farmer named Nat Butler "regularly purchased and sold Negroes for the Southern trade," according to R. Halliburton, Jr.'s article Free Black Owners of Slaves, published in the July 1975 issue of The South Carolina Historical Magazine (Vol. 76, No. 3, pp. 129-142). Lee Raphael, a professor of Judaic studies at the College of William & Mary.

Among the early American Jewish merchants to establish an ongoing trade with the Indians was Hayman Levy of New York. Prior to the Revolutionary War, Levy began trading glass beads, textiles, earrings, armbands and other goods imported from Holland, which were exchanged with the Indians for fur pelts which Levy obtained as an agent for Phyn, Ellice & Co. of Schenectady, Montreal and London. Hayman Levy was soon joined by a couple of Jewish associates, Nicholas Lowe and Joseph Simon, and together they set up a distillery in Newport, Rhode Island, producing rum and whiskey which they sold to other colonists and traded with the Indians. Within a short time there were 22 distilleries in Newport, all of them owned by Jews.

Joseph Simon, a Jewish colonist, was one of the most prominent Indian traders and merchants and one of the largest landholders in America during the last quarter of the 18th century. His enterprises extended not only over Pennsylvania, but to Ohio, Illinois and to the Mississippi river. Another colonial era Jew by the name of Levy Andrew Levy, a resident of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, "with two female slaves and one house," was Joseph Simon's business partner, and Simon's sons-in-law, Levi Phillips, along with Solomon M. Cohen, Michael Gratz, and Solomon Etting, were also associated with him at various periods. In partnership with William Henry, Simon supplied the Continental army with rifles, ammunition, drums, blankets, and provisions. The name Levy Andrew Levy appears on the receipt for a number of infected used blankets and handkerchiefs from the smallpox hospital that were given to the Indians by the British in 1763, leading to a deadly outbreak of smallpox that devastated members of the Indian tribe.

A list of twenty-two residents of Lancaster to whom various Indian tribes in Illinois conveyed a tract of land comprising the southern half of the present state of Illinois, includes the following names of Jews: Moses, Jacob, and David Franks, Barnard and Michael Gratz, Moses Franks, Jr., Joseph Simon, and Levy Andrew Levy.

In 1710 a Jewish immigrant named Jacob Franks arrived in New York from London and lived as a boarder in the household of Moses and Rachael Levy, later marrying their 16 year old daughter, Abigail in 1712. Acknowledged as a linguist and Judaic scholar, Jacob was the son of Adam Franks of Germany, a friend of King George of Hanover, who loaned that monarch the most valuable jewels in his coronation crown. Jacob Franks was the British king’s sole agent for the Northern Colonies at New York and his son David was the king’s agent for Pennsylvania. An eminent and wealthy merchant, he engaged in the slave trade, privateering, general commerce, and shipping. He was also very involved in the Jewish community and the construction of the Shearith Israel synagogue as well as president of the congregation in 1730. The Franks family was one of the leading families in Colonial New York, not only within the small Jewish community but also within the larger elite secular social circle comprised of prominent Protestant families.

Moses Levy, brother-in-law to Jacob Franks, was born in New York in the early 18th century. A prominent slave-trader and merchant, Moses Levy of New York and Newport, was one of several Ashkenazi Jewish families in Newport at that time. Levy lived in one of Newport's large colonial mansions at 29 Touro Street, which he willed to Moses Seixas in 1792. Levy was also one of the original benefactors of Touro Synagogue.

Aaron Lopez, was born in 1731 in Lisbon, Portugal, as "Duarte Lopez" to a muranno Jewish family who had ostensibly converted to Catholicism in order to avoid deportation but secretly continued to practicing Judaism. Lopez followed his older brother, Moses, to North America in 1752, where he immediately dropped the Christian name Duarte, took the Hebrew name Aaron, submitted to ritual circumcision, and began openly living as a Jew. Settling in Newport, Rhode Island, where his brother had located a decade earlier. Like his uncle and future father-in-law, Aaron established himself as a whale-oil merchant and a manufacturer of spermaceti candles. In 1761, Aaron, Jacob Rodriguez Rivera, and seven other merchants formed a cartel to control the price and distribution of whale oil. That same year he and Jacob Rodriguez Rivera, purchased a brigantine sailing ship named Grayhound which sailed to Africa in 1763, bringing back a cargo of 134 Africans who were sold as slaves to fellow Jew, Isaac de Costa, in South Carolina. Four captains made thirteen of the voyages to Africa, bringing back some 1,275 black slaves. Between 1761 and 1774, Aaron Lopez underwrote 21 slave ships and by the beginning of the Revolutionary War, he owned or controlled 30 vessels. Lopez soon amassed a vast fortune through shipping, the slave trade, candle making, distilling rum, producing chocolate, textiles, clothing, shoes, hats, bottles and barrels. By the early 1770s, Lopez had become the wealthiest person in Newport and his tax assessment was twice that of any other resident.

Jacob Rodriguez Rivera (uncle and father-in-law of Aaron Lopez) hailed from a Marrano family from Seville, Spain. He arrived in Newport via Curacao in 1748 where he became a prosperous merchant and slave-trader. Next to Aaron Lopez, Rivera occupied the highest position in the commercial, religious and social life of Newport’s Jewish community. His daughter Sarah, married Aaron Lopez and his son Jacob owned a grand mansion on the Parade that is today located at 8 Washington Square.

In 1733 a group of 40 Jews arrived aboard the second boat carrying passengers to the English colony of Georgia where they intended to establish a silk manufacturing industry. Among them was a Dr. Nunis who became the colony’s first practicing physician. The following year, a Jew by the name of Philip (Uri) Minis became the first colonist born in Georgia on July 11, 1734. Three years later in 1737, Abraham de Lyon, a Portuguese Jew, arrived in the colony of Georgia with the intention of establishing a wine-making industry.

The majority of the Jews who arrived in Georgia in 1733 were Sephardim, most of them having fled from Portugal to England before departing for the New World. Several years later in 1741 many of the Jewish families who had settled in Savannah, Georgia, left and moved to Charleston, South Carolina, due to the fact that the trustees of the Georgia colony would not allow them (or anyone else) to hold slaves. The state of South Carolina, which had long embraced slaveholding, was thus a welcoming place for these families. By 1749, when Georgia rethought the ban and decided to allow slaveholding, it was too late. Some families moved back, but many remained. Thereafter Charleston decisively eclipsed Savannah as the center for Southern Jewish settlement.

The charter of the Carolina Colony, drawn up by John Locke in 1669, granted liberty of conscience to all settlers, expressly mentioning "Jews, heathens, and dissenters." Simon Valentine along with four other Jews applied for citizenship in the English Colony of South Carolina in 1697. He later became the first Jewish landowner in the colony, entitling him to the right to vote. Other Jews soon followed and by 1703 a protest arose among the other colonists against the “Jew strangers” being allowed to vote in the election for members of the Assembly.

In 1747 Isaac de Costa, a Sephardic Jew born in London, arrived in Charleston, South Carolina, where he established himself as a merchant, shipping-agent, and slave-trader, who built a considerable fortune bringing hundreds of black slaves overseas from Africa. Isaac da Costa had been initiated into Freemasonry and appointed a Masonic Deputy Inspector General by fellow Jew Moses Michael Hayes and went on to establish the Sublime Grand Masonic Lodge of Perfection in Charleston prior to his death in 1783.

In 1756 Moses Lindo, a Sephardic Jew born in London in 1712, arrived in Charleston, South Carolina, where he established himself as a slave-owning planter and merchant in the cochineal and indigo trade with London. Lindo imported 49 slaves from Barbados to his South Carolina plantation in the 1750s. At one point in his career he ran an advertisement in the South Carolina Gazette stating that: "If any person is willing to part with a plantation of 500 acres with 60 or 70 Negroes, I am ready to purchase it for ready money." In 1762 he was appointed "Surveyor and Inspector-General of Indigo, Drugs, and Dyes."

Also arriving in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1756, was Moses Lindo's twenty year old indentured servant, Jonas Phillips, who had been born Jonah Freibush in Frankfurt, Germany. After serving his term of indenture, Phillips moved first to Albany, New York in 1759, and then to New York City, where he became a merchant and dealer in slaves. By 1760 Phillips had joined the New York Lodge of Freemasons, and served as shohet (ritual slaughterer) and bodek (examiner of meat) for Shearith Israel. Settling in Philadelphia just before the American Revolution, Phillips was a staunch advocate of the Non-Importation Agreement, and by the beginning of the Revolutionary War he supported the cause of American Independence and in 1778 he enlisted in the Philadelphia militia. By the year 1782 was the second wealthiest Jew in the city. He and his wife Rebecca Mendes Machado maintained their South Carolina ties through several of their 21 children.

In 1757 Isaac Monsanto, a Sephardic Jew born in the Netherlands arrives in New Orleans by way of Curacao establishing himself as a merchant and engaging in the business of shipping slaves and cargo from the Caribbean to the Gulf of Mexico. In 1767 Monsanto purchased a plantation known as Trianon outside of New Orleans. By the time the second Spanish governor took control in 1769, expelling the Jews from Louisiana, Isaac Monsanto had become one of New Orleans' wealthiest merchants. Under Spanish rule, Monsanto was stripped of his holdings and forced to leave the territory, relocating to the town of Mancha near Lake Pontchartrain in British territory, where he was joined by his brothers, Manuel, Jacob and Benjamin; while their sisters relocated to Pensacola, then part of British West Florida. Following Isaac's death in 1778, Manuel, Jacob and Benjamin Monsanto continued to manage their mercantile firm, dealing not only in dry goods but in real estate, commodities, debt collection and slaves. Records show that Benjamin Monsanto traded thirteen slaves for some three thousand pounds of indigo in 1785. By 1790, Manuel and Jacob had set up shop on Toulouse Street in New Orleans, while Benjamin and his wife Clara moved to a 500 acre plantation worked by eleven slaves on St Catherine's Creek near Natchez, Mississippi, where he continued operating part of the family business until his death in 1794. The Monsanto chemical corporation was founded by John Francis Queeny, who married Olga Mendez Monsanto, daughter of Emmanuel Mendes de Monsanto, a descendant of this family.

Jean LaFitte, a pirate and privateer who operated in the Gulf of Mexico during the early 1800s was born in France in 1780 to Sephardic Jewish parents whose Conversos grandmother and mother fled Spain for France in 1765, after his maternal grandfather was put to death by the Inquisition for "Judaizing". By 1805, he operated a warehouse in New Orleans to help disperse the goods smuggled by his brother Pierre Lafitte. After the United States government passed the Embargo Act of 1807, the Lafittes moved their operations to an island in Barataria Bay, Louisiana. By 1810, their new port was very successful; the Lafittes pursued a successful smuggling operation and also started to engage in piracy. By 1814 he was known as the "greatest trader in all the West" and sold slaves in the ports of New Orleans and Brazil. The Lafittes became spies for the Spanish during the Mexican War of Independence and moved to Galveston Island, Texas, where they developed a pirate colony they called Campeche. Lafitte continued attacking merchant ships as a pirate around Central American ports until he died in 1823, trying to capture Spanish vessels.

By the time of the American Revolution, over 30 Jewish families could be found in Newport, Rhode Island, alone, bearing family names such as Lopez, Levy, Rivera, Seixas, deToro (Touro), Gomez and Hays. In the New World, the Jews continued to engage in their long established careers as merchants and money lenders, manufacturers and sellers of alcoholic beverages, and were leaders in the forefront of the slave trade, amassing vast fortunes by importing and selling African slaves to the colonial plantations.

Some of the Jews of Newport and Charleston who were engaged in the distillery or slavery trade, or both, were: Isaac Gomez, Hayman Levy, Jacob Malhado, Naphtaly Myers, David Hart, Joseph Jacobs, Moses Ben Franks, Moses Gomez, Isaac Dias, Benjamin Levy, David Jeshuvum, Jacob Pinto, Jacob Turk, Daniel Gomez, James Lucana, Jan de Sweevts, Felix (cha-cha) de Souza (known as the 'Prince of Slavers' and second only to Aaron Lopez), Simeon Potter, Isaac Elizer, Jacob Rod, Jacob Rodriguez Rivera, Haym Isaac Carregal, Abraham Touro, Moses Hays, Moses Lopez, Judah Touro, Abraham Mendes and Abraham All. The following is a partial list of the slave ships owned by Jews:

'Abigail' owned by Aaron Lopez, Moses Levy and Jacob Franks.
'Crown' owned by Isaac Levy and Nathan Simpson.
'Nassau' owned by Moses Levy.
'Four Sisters' owned by Moses Levy.
'Anne & Eliza' owned by Justus Bosch and John Abrams.
'Prudent Betty' owned by Henry Cruger and Jacob Phoenix.
'Hester' owned by Mordecai and David Gomez.
'Elizabeth' owned by David and Mordecai Gomez.
'Antigua' owned by Nathan Marston and Abram Lyell.
'Betsy' owned by Wm. DeWoolf.
'Pouy' owned by James DeWoolf.
'White Horse' owned by Jan de Sweevts.
'Expedition' owned by John and Jacob Rosevelt.
'Charlotte' owned by Moses and Sam Levy and Jacob Franks.
'Caracoa' owned by Moses and Sam Levy.
Slave-runners, also owned by Jews, were the 'La Fortuna', the 'Hannah', the 'Sally', and the 'Venue'.

The American Revolution was fought by White gentile colonists because Jewish merchants in North America resented the fact that the British Crown imposed taxes on them. The Jewish merchants fomented the Revolutionary War as a means of cutting ties with Britain, so they would no longer be forced to pay taxes to the British Crown, and they could substantially increase their already staggering wealth by importing and selling black slaves from Africa once the flow of White indentured servants, transported to the colonies from the British Isles to serve as manual laborers on American plantations, had been cut off. The disgruntled working-class British colonists in North America soon found their own grievances being inflamed by the Jewish merchant class and the wealthy gentile elites into fighting a war against their own homeland in order to secure Jewish financial independence in the New World. Samson Levy, a Jewish merchant living in Philadelphia, led a boycott in on October 25, 1765, against the importation of goods from England to the colonies by signing a resolution along with six other Philadelphia Jewish merchants in protest against the tax known as the Stamp Act.

Moses Michael Hays was a prosperous slave-trader, banker, and merchant of colonial New England. Born in New York City in 1739, he was the son of Judah Hays and Rebecca Michaels, Jewish immigrants from the Netherlands. Hays introduced the Order of the Scottish Rite Masonic Order to America. He was the Grand Master of Massachusetts Masonic Lodge with Paul Revere and friend of Patriot Thomas Paine and he helped organized the King David Lodge in 1769. Hays moved from Newport to Boston in 1776 where he opened a shipping office. In June, 1776 (one month before the Declaration of Independence) Hays delivered a now famous letter to Rhode Island General Assembly protesting the requirement that Jews sign loyalty test before the fledgling government. He is credited as being one of the founders of the Massachusetts Fire and Marine Insurance Company which served to underwrite shipbuilding, trade and insurance to newly opened Far Eastern markets. In 1784 as the first depositor, Hays became a founder of the Massachusetts Bank which became part of the still operating Bank of America.

Mordecai Sheftall, the son of Jewish immigrants Benjamin and Perla Sheftall who arrived in the Georgia colony in 1733, Mordecai was born in Savannah in 1735. Well-connected with other Jews in the mercantile and shipping in England; the Caribbean; Charleston, South Carolina; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Sheftall  developed a network of contacts to help build up his own business by his mid-twenties and married Charleston-born Frances Hart, the sister of one of his Charleston merchant contacts, in 1761. A year after their marriage, the couple  owned 1,000 acres of land and nine slaves. Sheftall acquired another 1,000 acres in St. George Parish (later Burke County) in 1767 and built a tannery. In 1768 the Georgia Houses of Assembly appointed him Inspector of Tanned Leather for the Port of Savannah. As one of Savannah's leading merchants, Sheftall strongly objected to Britain's Stamp Act. Angered by it and other moves that were to lead to the colonial revolt of 1776, Sheftall joined the Savannah Parochial Committee, a group of townspeople calling for American independence. During the Revolutionary War, Sheftall was appointed Commissary General of Purchases and Issues to the Georgia militia in 1777. After the war ended in 1783, Mordecai returned to his life as a slave-holding plantation-owner and merchant in Savannah, and was granted several hundred additional acres of land for his service during the Revolution.

Solomon Bush was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1753. The son of a Jewish merchant, Mathias Bush, one of six Jews who signed the non-importation agreement of October 25, 1765, boycotting British goods in colonial America. During the Revolutionary War, he served as deputy adjutant general of the Pennsylvania State Militia and later became the highest ranking Jewish officer in the Revolutionary army, having been promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1779. In 1782 Bush contributed toward a new building for the Mikveh Israel Congregation in Philadelphia. A prominent Freemason, Bush was deputy inspector general of Masonry for Pennsylvania in 1781 and was a founding member of the Sublime Lodge of Perfection in Philadelphia which played an important part in the early history of Freemasonry in America.

Haym Salomon, a Jewish immigrant born Poland in 1740 to a family of Portuguese Sephardic Jews, settled in New York City in 1775, establishing himself as financial broker for slave-traders and overseas merchants. A slave-owner himself, Salomon was married to Rachael Franks, the daughter of Moses Franks, one of the largest slave dealers in the city at the time. A Freemason and sympathizer to the Revolutionary cause, Haym Salomon bankrolled the American army $20,000 to continue fighting the revolution, allowing them to ultimately defeat the British in the decisive battle of Yorktown. On December 23, 1783, Salomon was among a number of prominent Jews involved in the successful effort to have the Pennsylvania Council of Censors remove the religious test oath requiring each member of the Assembly to affirm his belief in the divine inspiration of the New Testament, saying: "I am a Jew; it is my own nation; I do not despair that we shall obtain every other privilege that we aspire to enjoy along with our fellow-citizens." The law was subsequently changed, and all civil restrictions against the Jews were removed.

Gershom Mendes Seixas, born in 1746, the son of Isaac and Rachael (Mendes) Seixas, became the first American-born Jewish clergyman in the United States, appointed to Congregation Shearith Israel in New York as its hazzan in 1768. During the British occupation of New York, Seixas served as hazzan for Congregation Mikve Israel in Philadelphia. In 1787, when George Washington was inaugurated as the first president of the United States, Seixas was one of the 14 clergy who participated in the inauguration ceremonies.

Gershom's brother, Moses Mendes Seixas, served as president (parnas) of Newport Rhode Island's Touro Synagogue, was a founding member of the nation's oldest Jewish Masonic Lodge (King David in Newport) and Grand Master of the Masonic Order of Rhode Island. In 1790, Seixas, wrote to George Washington, expressing his support for Washington's administration and good wishes for him. In 1795 Moses Seixas organized the Newport Bank of Rhode Island and served as its first cashier until his death in 1809. Another brother, Benjamin Mendes Seixas, was one of the founders of the New York Stock Exchange.

Born in 1752 in New York, Moses Myers and his wife Eliza (Judah) Myers were the first Jewish settlers in Norfolk, Virginia. A successful merchant, Moses established a five-vessel fleet for his import-export business within 5 years of settling in Virginia. In 1795 he was elected president of the Norfolk city council and in 1804 was commissioned colonel of a regiment of Virginia volunteers. He was appointed vice-consul for both Denmark and the Netherlands at Norfolk and in 1828, President John Quincy Adams appointed him collector of customs for the port of Norfolk.

David Isaacs, a Jewish merchant born in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1760, immigrated to Richmond, Virginia, along with his brother, Isaiah Isaacs, where he became an active member of the Jewish community, a slave-trader, and business partner in the firm of Cohen & Isaacs. David Isaacs sold the ball of twine that was used by Thomas Jefferson's overseer to lay out the first of the University of Virginia's buildings, and encouraged Thomas Jefferson in learning about the Jewish faith. Correspondence from Isaacs to Jefferson shows him offering books and pamphlets on Jewish topics in addition to other books Jefferson had asked him to obtain. Isaacs sold Jefferson meat, butter, and cheese (the very last purchase of Jefferson's life was cheese from Isaacs), wax, fish, hops, and "a bright bay" horse named Tecumseh. David Isaacs lived in a long-term common-law marriage Nancy West, a free woman of color who had established a bakery next to David Isaacs shop. Their daughter, Julia Ann Isaacs, married Eston Hemmings, the son of Thomas Jefferson's slave, Sally Hemmings.

In his last will and testament, probated in Albemarle County, in 1806. David Isaacs asked that his minor children be brought up in the families of "respectable Jews to the end that they may be brought up in the religion of their fore Fathers", and went on to state: "Being of the opinion that all men are by Nature equally free and being possessed of some of these beings who are unfortunately doomed to slavery as to them I must enjoin upon my executor a strict observance of the following clause in my will. My Slaves, hereafter named are to be and they are hereby manumited and made free so that after the different periods hereafter mentioned they shall enjoy all the priviliges and immunities of freed people."

Jacob Mordecai, born in Philadelphia in 1762, the son of Moses and Esther Mordecai, served as a rifleman at the age of 13 when the Continental Congress was resident in Philadelphia and later helped worked as a clerk under David Franks, the Jewish quartermaster to General George Washington, who supplied the Continental Army. After the war, Mordecai moved to New York and married Judith Myers. In 1792, the couple moved to Warrenton, North Carolina, where Mordecai became a tobacco merchant After his wife Judith died in childbirth, he remarried, to Judith's younger half-sister, Rebecca Myers, and opened the Warrenton Female Academy. Initially Mordecai and his wife Rebecca taught all the classes but were later joined by their daughter Rachel and two of his sons. In 1819, at age 56, ten years after opening his Female Academy, Mordecai sold the school and moved his family to Richmond, Virginia, where he purchased a plantation and slaves, becoming an active member of Richmond’s Jewish community, serving as president of its Congregation Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalome, the sixth oldest Jewish congregation in America, founded in 1789.

While the vast majority of colonists in North America were White Europeans who toiled and struggled to build a civilization out of a wilderness, engaging in physical labor as farmers, woodsmen, carpenters, miners, weavers, herdsmen, and other professions that produced actual goods of material value; their toil brought them little in the way of riches, seldom allowing them to rise above their position as menial workers. Few enjoyed the leisurely existence of the elite colonial gentry whose hereditary wealth and status afforded them the privileged lifestyle of plantation owners who profited off of the labor of the White indentured servants and negro slaves who worked their lands to produce commodities such as cotton, tobacco, sugar, indigo, and other produce that brought riches to those who sold them at market.

Once these goods left the plantation, they would be sold at wholesale to traders and merchants who would ship them off across the Atlantic where they would sell at much higher prices to a chain of distributors and merchants in the Old World who would then sell them at retail to European consumers. This created a niche market for the few who had the connections and the capital to invest as brokers of trade goods. As usual, this niche was filled by the Jews, who were well positioned as middlemen, having both the capital and the connections needed to engage in the highly lucrative enterprise of buying and selling large quantities of market goods, a business which few gentiles of the working class could afford to compete in, and one which the wealthy and idle elite plantation-owners were happy to leave to the Jews, so long as they brought them profits from the labor of those who toiled on their plantations.

By the year 1800 there were about 2,000 Jews in South Carolina (overwhelmingly Sephardic and settled in Charleston), which was more than in any other U.S. state at that time, and more than any other town, city, or place in North America. Charleston remained the unofficial capital of North American Jewry until about 1830, when the increasing number of Ashkenazi German Jews emigrating to America largely settled in New Orleans, Richmond, Savannah, Baltimore, and the north-east (particularly in Philadelphia and New York City), eventually surpassing the mostly Sephardic Jewish community in Charleston.

Among the founders of Richmond, Virginia's Jewish community were men such as Israel and Jacob I. Cohen, Samuel Myers, Jacob Modecai, Solomon Jacobs, Joseph Marx, Zalma Rehine, and Baruch and Manuel Judah, all slave holders. Following the Revolutionary War, Richmond was a town of some 2000 people, half of whom were slaves. By 1788, 17% of the White population were Jews and all but one of the Jewish householders held at least one slave as a domestic servant, with one Jewish family owning three. While less than 2% of Whites in the United States were slave owners (8% of White households nationally), by 1820 "over 75 percent of all Jewish families in Charleston, Richmond, and Savannah owned slaves, employed as domestic servants; almost 40 percent of all Jewish households in the United States owned one slave or more" according to Jewish historian, Jacob Rader Marcus, in his United States Jewry, 1776-1985, pg. 585.

It was on the institution of slavery that American Jewry built its staggering wealth, which would translate into enormous political power wielded by American Jews in future generations. While importing and selling African slaves in the New World proved to be a highly profitable endeavor, it was their labor that enabled owners of large plantations in the Southern states to raise and harvest vast quantities of valuable crops such as cotton, tobacco, sugar, rice, and indigo which Jewish merchants brokered at wholesale prices, shipping them overseas where they were sold at a high markup. The Jews would then purchase, at wholesale cost. cargoes of luxury goods from the markets of Europe for import back to the New World where they would sell them to American consumers through a retail network of Jewish merchants and distributors all along the ports of the east coast and the Gulf of Mexico.

Less than a century after the Revolutionary War had ended, the desire to perpetuate this system of slave-labor driven profiteering would lead Jewish American merchants to once again clamor for rebellion as they had done during the Revolutionary War. The predominately gentile-owned businesses of the industrial northern states sought to put an end to the spread of slavery by restricting it to those states where it already existed; but as always the unbridled avarice of the Jews demanded that slavery be allowed to expand into the western territories and states.

For the slave-owners and the Jewish brokers and merchants whose wealth was built on the agricultural products raised on Southern plantations, breaking away from the Union made economic sense if it meant that they could continue to expand and perpetuate the system of slave labor in new territories to the west. For the North, the loss of the financial capital resulting from Southern secession would have been a devastating economic disaster that it was willing to fight a war to prevent. It was the irreconcilable differences over this controversy between the manufacturing industry of the North and the agricultural based economy of the slave-holding South that encouraged the Jews to once again fan the flames of war on American soil, just as they had done between competing kingdoms in Europe for centuries.

#11 2022-09-21 14:28:15

Southern Gentry
Official Arbiter of F4 Policy
Registered: 2022-01-04
Posts: 1,488,867

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

In 1860 the total number of slave-owners in the South was 393,975 (including, in Louisiana, some free Negroes). The total number of Whites living in the South in 1860 was 5,582,222. Out of 5,582,222 White Southerners, only 393,975 or 7% owned slaves, and of those Southern slave owners 5,000 were Jewish, according to the Encyclopedia of World Slavery by Junius Rodriguez. Nationwide the ratio of America's 175,000 Jews who owned slaves in 1860 was nearly twice that of White Americans, with over 2.85% (1 out of 40) of individual Jewish Americans owning slaves, compared to less than 1.5% (1 out of 70) of the United States' 26,581,450 White residents.

The percentage of slave-ownership was even higher among the 476,748 free persons of color living in the U.S. in 1860. In New Orleans, for example over 3,000 free negroes owned slaves, or 28 percent of the free negroes in that city. In 1860 there were at least six negroes in Louisiana who owned 65 or more slaves. The largest number, 152 slaves, were owned by the widow C. Richards and her son P.C. Richards, who owned a large sugar cane plantation. Another negro slave magnate in Louisiana, with over 100 slaves, was Antoine Dubuclet, a sugar planter whose estate was valued at $264,000 in 1860 dollars. In Charleston, South Carolina,125 free negroes owned slaves in 1860; six of them owning 10 or more. Of the $1.5 million in taxable property owned by free Negroes in Charleston, more than $300,000 represented slave holdings. In North Carolina 69 free Negroes were slave owners. In 1830 about 13.7 percent (319,599) of the black population was free. Of these, 3,776 free Negroes owned 12,907 slaves, out of a total of 2,009,043 slaves owned in the entire United States. Of these black slave owners, fifty-four (or about 1 percent) owned between 20 and 84 slaves in 1830; 172 (about 4 percent) owned between 10 to 19 slaves; and 3,550 (about 94 percent) each owned between 1 and 9 slaves, while 42 percent owned at least one slave.

August Belmont, Sr., born August Schonberg to a Jewish family in Hesse, Germany, in 1813, was apprenticed to the Rothschild banking firm in Frankfurt, Germany, where he became a confidential clerk in 1832. Five years later while en route to manage the Rothschild's financial interests in Cuba, August Schonberg became caught up in the Panic of 1837 while stopping over in New York City, where he stayed on to manage the Rothschild's interests in the U.S. after their New York agent had filed for bankruptcy. Schonberg became a naturalized American and changed his name to August Belmont in order to sound less Jewish. In America, he started his own financial firm, August Belmont & Company, with the intention of supplanting the recently bankrupted firm, The American Agency. August Belmont & Co. became a success, and over the next five years Belmont restored the Rothschild's U.S. interests. In 1844, Belmont was named the Consul-General of the Austrian Empire at New York City, representing the Imperial Government's affairs in the major American financial and business capital.

On November 7, 1849, Belmont married Caroline Slidell Perry, the daughter of Commodore Matthew Perry and the niece of Sen. John Slidell of Louisiana. Slidell made Belmont his protege. In 1853, U.S. president Franklin Pierce appointed Belmont ambassador to The Hague in the Netherlands, a office he held from October 11, 1853 until September 26, 1854 when the position's title was changed to Minister Resident. Belmont served as Minister Resident until September 22, 1857. While in the Holland, Belmont urged American annexation of the Caribbean island Cuba as a new slave state in what became known as the Ostend Manifesto.

As a delegate to the pivotal, but soon violently-split Democratic National Convention of 1860 in Charleston, South Carolina, Belmont supported Sen. Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, who had triumphed in the famous Lincoln-Douglas Debates over newly recruited Republican Party candidate for the Senate seat representing Illinois, the promising Abraham Lincoln, his long-time romantic and political rival. Senator Douglas subsequently nominated Belmont as chairman of the Democratic National Committee. According to the Chicago Tribune in 1864, Belmont was buying up Southern bonds on behalf of the Rothchilds as their agent in New York because he backed the Southern cause.

Among the Jews living in the American South who supported the secession of the Confederacy were men such as Florida senator David Levy Yulee. Born on the Caribbean island of St. Thomas in 1810, Yulee's father, a Sephardic Jew named Moses Elias Levy was a cousin and business partner of Phillip Benjamin, the father of future Confederate Secretary of State Judah P. Benjamin, and had made a fortune in lumber while living in the Caribbean. After the family immigrated to the United States, David's father purchased 50,000 acres of land near present-day Jacksonville, Florida, where he hoped to establish a "New Jerusalem" for Jewish settlers. In 1845, after Florida was admitted as a state, he became the first Jew elected to the United States Senate. Levy officially changed his name to David Levy Yulee (adding his father's Sephardic surname) in 1846. Using the labors of 69 slaves, Yulee built the a sugar mill which began operating in 1851 to process the sugar cane grown on his 5,100 acre plantation along the Homosassa River. By the time of the Civil War, the Yulee Sugar Mill was employing the labors of more than 100 slaves when in full operation.

In 1853 Yulee chartered the Florida railroad for which he began issuing public stock, as the Florida Railroad in 1853. His company began construction in 1855. With state grants obtained through his Florida Internal Improvement Act of 1855, Yulee began securing federal and state land grants to build a network of railroads through the Florida wilderness On March 1, 1861, the first train arrived from the east in Cedar Key, just weeks before the beginning of the Civil War. Elected to the Senate again in 1855, Yulee served until January 21, 1861, when he withdrew from the Senate after Florida seceded. He joined the Congress of the Confederacy. His development of the railroads was his most important achievement and contribution to the state of Florida, bringing increased economic development to the state.

Judah P. Benjamin, a Sephardic Jewish immigrant born in 1811 on Saint Croix in the Virgin Islands, he was brought to the United States by his parents in 1813 at the age of two. In 1833 he married Natalie Bauche de St. Martin, the 16-year-old daughter of a prominent and wealthy New Orleans French Creole family. He purchased a sugar cane plantation in Belle Chase, Louisiana, along with 150 slaves. In 1852, he was elected by the state legislature to the US Senate from Louisiana, becoming the second Jewish senator in U.S. history, after the election of his cousin, David Levy Yulee, in 1845.

After Louisiana seceded from the Union in 1861, Benjamin resigned from his seat as a U.S. senator and was appointed as the Attorney General of the Confederate States 11 days later by Jefferson Davis. In September 1861, Benjamin became the acting Confederate Secretary of War and was later appointed as the Confederate Secretary of State in March 1862. In the aftermath following the end of the Civil War, Benjamin and Davis were suspected of plotting the assassination of Abraham Lincoln carried out by John Wilkes Booth. Fearing that he would be brought to justice, Benjamin fled to the United Kingdom where, with the assistance of his fellow Jew, Lord Rothschild, he became a distinguished barrister and in 1872, while Benjamin Disraeli was serving as Britain's first Jewish-born Prime Minister, Benjamin was appointed Queen Victoria's Counsel.

John Wilkes Booth. a famous American stage actor was born into the prominent 19th century Booth theatrical family from Maryland in 1838. According to the autobiography of his sister Asia Booth, their father, Junius Brutus Booth, was “born in 1796 to a highly educated clan of Jewish lawyers and silversmiths.” The Booth family were originally Sephardic Jewish wine merchants from Portugal who ran a business exporting wine through the ports of northern England as far back as 1569. John Wilkes Booth's paternal great-great-great-grandfather was Ricardo Botha, who born in 1675 and settled in England, he changed his name from Botha to Booth. His grandson, John Booth, Jr., (1723-1787), was a silversmith established in London, England. He married Elizabeth Wilkes (1720-1801); John's sons John and Philip founded a London distillery in 1740 and began selling Booth's dry gin, eventually becoming the largest gin distillery in the UK; while his son Richard (John Wilkes Booth's grandfather) was an attorney. Richard's son, Junius Brutus Booth (1796-1852), was a well-known Shakespearean actor in England and America.

In his 1865 biography of John Wilkes Booth, George Alfred Townsend writes of Junius Brutus Booth: "The elder Booth in every land was a sojourner, as all his fathers were of Hebrew descent, and by a line of actors, he united in himself that.strong Jewish physiognomy which, in its nobler phases, makes all that is dark and beautiful, and the combined vagrancy of all men of genius and all men of the stage. Fitful, powerful,- passionate, his life was a succession of vices and triumphs."

Following Lincoln's assassination, Booth fled on horseback to southern Maryland, eventually making his way to a farm in rural northern Virginia 12 days later, where he was tracked down. Booth's companion gave himself up, but Booth refused and was shot by a Union soldier after the barn in which he was hiding was set ablaze. Eight other conspirators or suspects were tried and convicted, and four were hanged shortly thereafter.

In 1844 Henry Lehman, a 23-year-old son of a Jewish cattle trader from Rimpar, Bavaria, arrived in the United States. Settling in Montgomery, Alabama, he opened a dry-goods store under the name of "H. Lehman". He was soon joined by his younger brothers Emanuel in 1847, and Mayer Lehman, in 1850, at which time his business became known as Lehman Brothers. Although Henry died from yellow fever in 1858, his brothers Emanuel and Mayer Lehman continued operating the family business he had founded and soon grew wealthy as middlemen in the cotton trade, routinely accepting  raw cotton from customers as payment for merchandise which they warehoused and then sold to other brokers or banks in New York and Liverpool, England. Within a few years this business grew to become the most significant part of their operation and by By 1860 their holdings included seven slaves.

Emanuel Lehman moved to New York and opened a branch office in Manhattan at 119 Liberty Street, where in 1862, the firm teamed up with a cotton merchant named John Durr to form Lehman, Durr & Co. Following the Civil War,  the company helped finance Alabama's reconstruction. The firm's headquarters were eventually moved to New York City, where it helped found the New York Cotton Exchange in 1870; Emanuel sat on the Board of Governors until 1884. The firm also dealt in the emerging market for railroad bonds and entered the financial-advisory business.

While Jews in the Southern states largely concerned themselves with trading and retail, Jews living in the industrial states of the North such as Marcus Goldman, found their way into banking, money-lending and buying, selling and trading shares of interest in corporations built by gentiles. The founder of Goldman Sachs, was born in Trappstadt, Bavaria on December 9, 1821. Marcus immigrated  to the United States in 1848. Upon arriving in America, he worked as a peddler with a horse-drawn cart and later as a shopkeeper in Philadelphia. There, Goldman met and married eighteen-year-old Bertha Goldman, who had also emigrated from Germany in 1848. In 1869, with his wife and five children, Goldman relocated to New York City, setting himself up as a broker of promissory notes.

From his earliest days of his business, Goldman was able to singlehandedly transact as much as $5 million worth of commercial paper a year. Successful though he was, Goldman's business was insignificant compared to that of the other Jewish-German bankers of the day. Concerns like J. & W. Seligman & Co., with working capital of $6 million in 1869, were already modern-day investment bankers immersed in underwriting and trading railroad bonds. Goldman's youngest daughter, Louisa, married Samuel Sachs, the son of close friends and fellow Lower Franconia, Bavaria immigrants. Louisa's older sister and Sam's older brother had already married. His oldest son, Julius Goldman, married Sarah Adler, daughter of Samuel Adler.

In 1882, Goldman invited his son-in-law Samuel to join him in the business and changed the firm's name to M. Goldman and Sachs. Business boomed - by 1880 the new firm was turning over $30 million worth of paper a year - and the firm's capital was now $100,000 (equivalent of $2.4 million in 2012), all of it the senior partner's. For almost fifty years after its inception, all of Goldman Sachs's partners were members of intermarried families. In 1885, Goldman took his own son Henry and his son-in-law Ludwig Dreyfuss into the business as junior partners and the firm adopted its present name, Goldman Sachs & Co. In 1894, Henry Sachs entered the firm, and in 1896, the firm joined the New York Stock Exchange. When Goldman retired, he left the firm in the hands of his son Henry Goldman and his son-in-law Samuel Sachs. In 1904, two of Sachs' sons, Arthur and Paul, joined the firm immediately after graduating from Harvard University. Goldman died in summer 1904.

Writing in the journal of his travels throughout the South in the mid-19th century, author Fredrick Law Olmsted noted: "There is a considerable population of foreign origin, generally of the least valuable class; very dirty German Jews, especially, abound, and their characteristic shops (with their characteristic smells, quite as bad as in Cologne) are thickly set in the narrowest and meanest streets, which seem otherwise to be mainly inhabited by negroes......A swarm of Jews has, within the last ten years, settled in every Southern town, many of them men of no character, opening cheap clothing and trinket shops, ruining or driving out of business many of the old retailers, and engaging in an unlawful trade with the simple Negroes, which is found very profitable."

Similarly, Mark Twain commented: "In the U.S. cotton states, after the war, the Jew came down in force, set up shop on the plantation, supplied all the negroes' wants on credit, and at the end of the season was the proprietor of the negro's share of the present crop and part of the next one. Before long the whites detested the Jew."

Civil War Union General William Tecumseh Sherman on arriving in the South was astonished by the number of Jewish carpetbaggers and scalawags that he encountered operating in the Confederate states, saying: "I found so many Jews & speculators here trading in cotton and secessionists had become open in refusing anything but gold that I have found myself bound to stop it."

General Ulysses Grant wrote to the Assistant Adjutant General of the US Army on December 17, 1862: "I have long since believed that in spite of all the vigilance that can be infused into post commanders, the specie regulations of the Treasury Department have been violated, and that mostly by the Jews and other unprincipled traders. So well satisfied have I been of this that I instructed the commanding officer at Columbus to refuse all permits to Jews to come South, and I have frequently had them expelled from the department. But they come in with their carpet-sacks in spite of all that can be done to prevent it. The Jews seem to be a privileged class that can travel anywhere. They will land at any woodyard on the river and make their way through the country. If not permitted to buy cotton themselves, they will act as agents for someone else, who will be at a military post with a Treasury permit to receive cotton and pay for it in Treasury notes which the Jew will buy at an agreed rate, paying gold."

#12 2022-09-21 14:29:01

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

. wrote:
. wrote:
. wrote:

essentially originate from this book:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Secre … s_and_Jews

Which was put out by the Nation of Islam and later academically debunked.

If you fact check Atkin's writing you'll see it's largely wikipedia copypasta. Another sign he's a troll.

He would be trolling if he did not actually believe the bullshit he posts. He's a 100% certifiably psychotic narcissist who truly believes the fraudulent bullshit he posts.

Maybe. Could also just be a way of indoctrinating others with his own hatred. Just saying.

#13 2022-09-21 14:31:23

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

There he goes again with copypasta of unknown & dubious origin. 🤣

#14 2022-09-21 14:33:55

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

SG, credible sources say that Jews weren’t disproportionately involved more than Whites - that’s all.

No one doubts that SOME Jews were involved.

#15 2022-09-21 14:41:07

Southern Gentry
Official Arbiter of F4 Policy
Registered: 2022-01-04
Posts: 1,488,867

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

. wrote:

SG, credible sources say that Jews weren’t disproportionately involved more than Whites - that’s all.

No one doubts that SOME Jews were involved.

Of course they were, you backpedaling kike:

TObF9sO.jpg

#16 2022-09-21 14:46:58

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

Can’t be bothered to reply seriously to this tedious troll anymore.
  \
schlomosad

#17 2022-09-21 14:56:56

Diesel_Dawg
FUCK YOU!
Registered: 2022-01-07
Posts: 3,030

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

Does the midget realize that no one reads his walls of copy pasta?


Fuck You!

#18 2022-09-21 15:28:21

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

Diesel_Dawg wrote:

Does the midget realize that no one reads his walls of copy pasta?

He believes everyone sits on the edge of their chair waiting for him to post his wondrous faked lineage and they read it in awe. lol

#19 2022-09-21 15:29:39

Diesel_Dawg
FUCK YOU!
Registered: 2022-01-07
Posts: 3,030

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

. wrote:
Diesel_Dawg wrote:

Does the midget realize that no one reads his walls of copy pasta?

He believes everyone sits on the edge of their chair waiting for him to post his wondrous faked lineage and they read it in awe. lol

His DNA results say 100% fat, ugly midget.


Fuck You!

#20 2022-09-21 17:37:13

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

. wrote:

Can’t be bothered to reply seriously to this tedious troll anymore.
  \
:

Those news clippings don’t show that Jews were operating in the slave trade any more than their White counterparts. Hence there’s nothing worth replying to. Case closed. Feel free to add emotes. 🤣

#21 2022-09-21 17:47:33

Niggers are apes
152 IQ and 3.125% Jew
From: Montreal
Registered: 2022-01-04
Posts: 2,042

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

My Dutch ancestors owned ships and were probably involved in the slave trade. There's no evidence either way because all of the documents are sealed in a vault.


anti nigger
anti liberal
anti bagger
anti nazi

#22 2022-09-21 18:03:02

Southern Gentry
Official Arbiter of F4 Policy
Registered: 2022-01-04
Posts: 1,488,867

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

. wrote:
. wrote:

Can’t be bothered to reply seriously to this tedious troll anymore.
  \
:

Those news clippings don’t show that Jews were operating in the slave trade any more than their White counterparts. Hence there’s nothing worth replying to. Case closed. Feel free to add emotes. 🤣


Those aren't gentile names on those advertisements for slave auctuions, Hymie.

"One hundred and twenty-five RICE FIELD NEGROS" for sale by (((Jacob Cohen))):

QAcCQ9I.png

#23 2022-09-21 18:19:42

.
Dust in the wind.

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

. wrote:
Diesel_Dawg wrote:

Does the midget realize that no one reads his walls of copy pasta?

He believes everyone sits on the edge of their chair waiting for him to post his wondrous faked lineage and they read it in awe. lol

I do. And they're not fake. They are very real.

SG has one of the most fascinating lineages anybody has ever seen. The historical significance of his family cannot be overestimated. Reading any of SG's genealogy threads is like getting a college education in history, but for free.

You should all be thanking SG for his contributions to this forum. smile

#24 2022-09-21 18:24:29

Niggers are apes
152 IQ and 3.125% Jew
From: Montreal
Registered: 2022-01-04
Posts: 2,042

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

Slave auctions were the used car dealers of their time.

The transatlantic trade was highly organized with offices in New York, London and Amsterdam.

To be profitable ships had to carry goods on each leg of the voyage. The trade routes were triangular. Ships would leave Europe with chains, guns and other trade goods that were used to buy slaves. Then the slaves were brought to America and traded for sugar, tobacco and other valuable spices that were shipped back to Europe.

Jews handled the retail buying and selling of slaves because it was considered unchristian and the high ranking gentile investors had to remain anonymous.

Akins is simply broadcasting the propaganda of his social betters. That slavery and the capitalist system built on top of it was all the work of evil Jews.


anti nigger
anti liberal
anti bagger
anti nazi

#25 2022-09-21 18:34:28

Southern Gentry
Official Arbiter of F4 Policy
Registered: 2022-01-04
Posts: 1,488,867

Re: SG’s ideas about Jews and the transatlantic slave trade to America

Here are the names, locations, and details of more than two hundred Jews who controlled commerce and the slave-trade in early America during the colonial period (Source: The Encyclopedia of Jewish History and Culture https://brill.com/view/db/ejhc?language=en )

Hart Aaron, colonial American Jewish merchant and shohet (Jewish butcher) in New York City, died in 1777.

Jonas Aaron, colonial American Jewish merchant residing in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1703.

Abraham Isaac Abrahams, colonial American Jewish merchant, tobacconist, and distiller in New York City; moel for Congregation Sherith Israel.

Chapman Abrahams, colonial American Jewish merchant who operated in Albany, New York, Detroit, and Montreal. Escaped capture during the Pontiac uprising of 1762.

Emanuel Abrahams, colonial American Jewish merchant, tobacconist and distiller in Charleston, South Carolina.

Isaac Abrahams, colonial American Jewish physician in New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore during the 1700s.

Israel Abrahams, colonial American Jewish merchant and interpreter of Spanish and Dutch to the Court of the Vice Admiralty in Newport, Rhode Island in 1746.

Levy Abrahams, colonial American Jewish merchant in Savannah, Georgia.

Abraham Alexander, Sr., Revolutionary War officer, Freemason, and U.S. Customs House auditor in Charleston, South Carolina.

Moses Ambrosius, colonial American Jewish merchant, refugee from Recife, Brazil, who arrived in New Amsterdam in 1654 along with Jacob Barsimson and other Jews.

Joseph Andrews, colonial American Jewish merchant in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Michael Asher, colonial American Jewish shipping merchant, slave-trader, operating in Boston and New York in the 1700s.

Abraham Azuby, colonial American Jewish clergyman, arrived in Charleston in 1764, was the first paid rabbi in the colony of South Carolina.

Jacob Barsimson, colonial American Jewish merchant employed by the Dutch East India Company's colony in Recife, Brazil, arrived in New Amsterdam aboard the Peartree on August 22 1654.

Isaac Benedix, colonial American Jewish merchant and postmaster in Savannah and Charleston during the 1700s.

Saul Brown (originally Saul Pardo),colonial American Jewish merchant who applied to trade in New York in 1685. Head of the Beaver Street synagogue which served a congregation of 20 Jewish families.

David Bush - colonial American Jewish settler, Freemason, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain in Philadelphia and Wilmington, Delaware.

Matthias Bush - colonial Jewish merchant, land owner in Philadelphia. One of six Jews who signed the non-importation agreement of October 25, 1765, boycotting British goods in colonial America.

Solomon Bush, colonial American Jewish merchant in Philadelphia who was one of six Jews who signed the non-importation agreement of October 25, 1765, boycotting British goods in colonial America. During the Revolutionary War, he served as deputy adjutant general of the Pennsylvania State Militia and was  promoted to lieutenant colonel in 1779. A prominent Freemason, Bush was deputy inspector general of Masonry for Pennsylvania in 1781 and was a founding member of the Masonic Sublime Lodge of Perfection in Philadelphia.

Aaron Nunez Cardoza, colonial American Jewish merchant and tailor who settled in New York in 1750.

Isaac Nunez Cardoza, olonial AmericaJewish merchant who settled in New York in 1752, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Joseph Carpelles, colonial American Jewish innkeeper in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War.

Raphael Hayyim Isaac Carigal, Emissary of the Palestine Yishuv in Newport Rhode Island and New York City in the 1770s.

Jacob Coen, one of three Jews who on November 29, 1655, petitioned Peter Stuyvesant, the governor of New Amsterdam, for permission to trade on the Delaware River, claiming that under the act of February 15, 1655, they had received the consent of the directors of the West India Company to travel, reside, trade and enjoy the same privileges as other inhabitants. This petition was refused "for weighty reasons", but they were permitted to send two persons to the South River (subsequently named the Delaware) in order to terminate a trading expedition already entered upon.

Israel I. Cohen, colonial American Jewish merchant and slave-trader in Richmond, Virginia, in the 1700s.

Jacob Cohen, colonial American Jewish silversmith, commander of Virginia cavalry during the Revolutionary War.

Jacob I. Cohen, colonial American Jewish banker, Merchant and Freemason in Philadelphia and Richmond, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Jacob Raphael Cohen, colonial American Jewish merchant in Philadelphia and New York during the 1700s.

Joseph Cohen, colonial Jewish American merchant located in Philadelphia during the 1700s.

Mordecai Cohen, colonial Jewish American plantation owner, slave-holder, Commissioner of Markets and Commissioner of the Orphan' House in Charleston, South Carolina.

Moses Cohen, colonial Jewish American merchant, shopkeeper and rabbi in Charleston, South Carolina during the 1700s.

Solomon Cohen, colonial postmaster and tax collector in Georgetown, South Carolina during the 1700s.

Lazarus David, colonial American Jewish merchant in Montreal during the 1700s.

Samuel David, colonial American Jewish merchant in Montreal during the 1700s.

Salvator Dandrade, one of three Jews who on November 29, 1655, petitioned Peter Stuyvesant, the governor of New Amsterdam, for permission to trade on the Delaware River, claiming that under the act of February 15, 1655, they had received the consent of the directors of the West India Company to travel, reside, trade and enjoy the same privileges as other inhabitants. This petition was refused "for weighty reasons", but they were permitted to send two persons to the South River (subsequently named the Delaware) in order to terminate a trading expedition already entered upon.

Salvador de Andrade (Andrada) colonial American Jewish merchant, tobacconist born in the Netherlands in 1655, established a business in New Amsterdam during the 17th century.

Daniel Nunes de Costa, a Jewish merchant naturalized on Novermber 18, 1727.

Isaac de Costa, Sephardic Jewish shipping agent, merchant and slave-trader operating out of Charleston, South Carolina, in the 1700s. He appointed a Masonic Deputy Inspector General by fellow Jew Moses Michael Hayes and went on to establish the Sublime Grand Masonic Lodge of Perfection in Charleston prior to his death in 1783.

Jacob De Leon, a colonial American Jewish merchant in Charleston and Columbia, South Carolina, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Israel De Leiben, colonial American Jewish merchant, shohet (Jewish butcher) in Philadelphia and Savannah during the 1700s, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Abraham De Lucena, one of three Jews who on November 29, 1655, petitioned Peter Stuyvesant, the governor of New Amsterdam, for permission to trade on the Delaware River, claiming that under the act of February 15, 1655, they had received the consent of the directors of the West India Company to travel, reside, trade and enjoy the same privileges as other inhabitants. This petition was refused "for weighty reasons", but they were permitted to send two persons to the South River (subsequently named the Delaware) in order to terminate a trading expedition already entered upon.

Abraham Haim De Lucena, colonial American Jewish merchant and rabbi in New York City

Samuel De Lucena, colonial American Jewish broker operating in New York City and Philadelphia during the 1700s.

Abraham De Lyon, a Jew who had been a vineron in Portugal, sent to Georgia by the trustees of the colony to supervise the cultivation of grapes and wine-making.

Myer Derkeim, colonial American Jewish merchant and itenerant moel operating in Philadelphia, Richmond and Charleston during the 1700s.

Marcus Elcan, colonial American Jewish merchant and founder of Beth Shalom synagogue in Richmond, Virginia during the 1700s.

Benjamin Elias, colonial American Jewish merchant and Hebrew instructor at Shearith Israel synagogue in New York in the 1700s.

Eleazar Elizer, colonial American Jewish postmaster in Greenville, South Carolina; born in Newport, Rhode Island in 1761.

Isaac Elizer, colonial American Jewish shipping merchant and slave-trader operating in Charleston, South Carolina in the 1700s.

Benjamin Etting, colonial American Jewish goldsmith, merchant; reocated to Norwalk, Connecticut, after New York came under British occupation during the Revolutionary War.

Elijah Etting, colonial American Jewish merchant and Indian trader in Pennsylvania, supplied Revolutionary Army with blankets during the Revolutionary War.

Moses Etting, colonial American Jewish merchant in Easton, Pennsylvania in the 1700s.

Reuben Etting, a Jew from York, Pennsylvania, who along with his brother Solomon and their uncle, Levi Solomon, opened a bank in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1796.

Solomon Etting, colonial American Jewish merchant, Freemason and shohet (Jewish butcher) from York, Pennsylvania, who along with his brother Ruben, and their uncle, Levi Solomon, opened a bank in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1796.

Abraham Forst, colonial American Jewish merchant, shohet (Jewish butcher), Freemason in Philadelphia in the 1700s.

Benjamin Franks, colonial Jewish privateer and Jeweler, born in Barbadoes in 1649, he served crew pirates under Capt. Kidd

David Franks, American-born Jew (son of David Franks) acting as King George III's royal agent to the colony of Pennsylvania.

David Salisbury Franks, born in Philadelphia in 1740, he was the leader of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of Montreal in 1775. During the Revolutionary War he was appointed paymaster of the Continental Army in Quebec, afterwards relocating to Philadelphia. He served as aide-de-camp for General Benedict Arnold at Westpoint, at the time of Arnold's attempt to hand over the fort to the British. Later he was entrusted as a courier charged with delivering secret documents to Benjamin Franklin in France and John Jay in Madrid. After the Revolutionary War he was given a grant of land for his services and a position as assistant cashier for the Bank of the United States.

Henry (Naphtali) Benjamin Franks, colonial American Jewish merchant and shopkeeper in Mt. Holly, New Jersey during the 1700s.

Jacob Franks, German Jewish shipping-merchant and slave-trader who served as King George III's royal agent for provisioning the British forces in New York during the French and Indian Wars; his dealings with the crown during this period exceeded £750,000 in value.

Naphtali (Hart) Franks, colonial American Jewish shipping merchant, slave-trader, and army purveyor in New York during the 1700s.

Solomon Franco, a Sephardic Jew who arrived at Boston in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1649 as an agent for Immanuel Perada, a Jewish merchant in the Netherlands.

Joseph Frazon, shipping merchant, slave-trader and landowner in colonial Boston, Massachusetts. Resisted Cotton Mather's attempts to convert him to Christianity.

Moritz Frust, early American Jewish immigrant born in 1782, he became a coin designer/engraver for the United States Mint in Philadelphia.

Rowland Gideon, colonial American Jewish merchant in Boston, Masachusetts in the 1600s.

Samuel Goldsmith, colonial American Jewish shipping merchant and slave-trader in Richmond, Virginia, in the 1600s.

Barnard Gratz, Jewish merchant from Lancaster, Pennsylvania, who traded with Indians for land in the Illinois territory.

Michael Gratz, Jewish merchant from Lancaster, Pennsylvania, who traded with Indians for land in the Illinois territory.

Aaron Hart, colonial American Jewish merchant, army purveyor, land-owner, Freemason in Canada during the French and Indian War.

Bernard Hart, colonial American Jewish merchant, quartermaster, officer of the New York Stock Exchange.

Ephiam Hart, colonial American Jewish merchant, stock broker, land speculator, founder of Hebra Hesed Ve Emet Jewish fraternal organization, in New York and Philadelphia in the 1700s.

Ezekiel Hart, colonial American Jewish merchant, landowner, legislator, noted for his refusal to take the Christian oath of service.

Isaac Hart, colonial American Jewish merchant in New York and Newport Rhode Island, purchaser of land for Touro Synagogue.

Jacob Hart, father-in-law of Haym M. Salomon, was a Jewish merchant operating in Baltimore, Maryland, who headed a subscription of £2,000 ($10,000) loaned to Lafayette for the relief of the detachment under his command in 1781.

Joel Hart, colonial American Jewish physician, surgeon, Freemason, charter member of the New York Medical Society, U.S. consul to Britain.

Michael Hart, colonial American Jewish merchant, shohet (Jewish butcher), and landowner in Easton, Pennsylvania. Known as the "stuttering Jew", he was born in 1738 and became very rich, owning much property in the surrounding country. Michael Hart deeded to his son Jacob, on March 25, 1800, ground for a burial-place for the Jews.

Moses Hart, colonial American Jewish merchant, banker, landowner, navigator, author, and deist philosopher in Canada and New York in the 1700s.

Myer Hart (de Shira), colonial American Jewish merchant, Revolutionary War agent for British prisoners, founder of Easton, Pennsylvania, in 1750. He took the oath of allegiance to the colonial government in 1764, and became one of Easton's most wealthy citizens.

Samuel Hart, colonial American Jewish merchant, president of Shearith Israel congregation in New York City in the 1700s.

Andrew Hays, colonial American Jewish merchant in Montreal in the 1700s.

David Hays, colonial American Jewish merchant, president of Sharith Israel congregation in New York City in the 1700s.

David Hays, Jr., colonial American Jewish merchant, shopkeeper, furnished provisions to the Revolutionary Army, in New York in the 1700s.

Isaac Hays, tallow chandler, merchant in New York city in the 1700s.

Jacob Hays, colonial American Jewish merchant, one of the founding members who built the Shearith Israel Congregation synagogue in New York in the 1700s.

John Jacob Hays, colonial American Jewish merchant, Indian trader and agent, postmaster in Illinois territory.

Judah Hays, colonial American Jewish merchant, ship-owner, slave-trader, officer of Sheraith Israel Congregation in New York in the 1700s.

Michael Hays, colonial American Jewish merchant, shopkeeper, landowner, slave-holder, member of the New York state Constitutional Convention in the 1700s.

Moses Michael Hays, colonial American Jewish merchant, slave-trader, banker, and Freemason', introduced the Scottish Rite Masonic Order to America. Grand Master of Massachusetts Masonic Lodge, founder of the King David Lodge in 1769. During the colonial rebellion, Hays moved from Newport to Boston in 1776 where he opened a shipping office. In June, 1776 Hays protested the requirement that Jews sign loyalty test before the fledgling government. Founder of the Massachusetts Fire and Marine Insurance Company. In 1784 as the first depositor, Hays became a founder member of the Massachusetts Bank which became part of the still operating Bank of America.

Samuel Hays, colonial American Jewish merchant, broker, member of Mikvah Israel Congregation in Philadelphia in the 1700s.

Solomon Hays, colonial American Jewish merchant, shohet (Jewish butcher) in New York City in the 1700s.

Harmon (Menachem) Hendricks, colonial American Jewish merchant, copper monger in New York in the 1700s.

Uriah Hendricks, colonial American Jewish merchant and importer who immigrated to New York from the Netherlands in the 1750.

Jacob Henry (born Jacob Gratz), North Carolina legislator born in Philadelphia in 1776; know for his address on religious liberties.

Elias Hyneman, colonial American Jewish merchant and innkeeper in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War.

Benjamin Isaacs, colonial American Jewish scholar in Connecticut during the 1700s, associated with Yale University.

David Isaacs, Jewish merchant in Richmond and Charlottesville, Virginia, a partner in the firm of Cohen & Isaacs. He operated a store in Charlottesville, Virginia, which supplied goods to Thomas Jefferson. Isaacs had a common-law marriage with Nancy West, a free woman of color and by her fathered a mulatto daughter, Julia Ann Isaacs, who married Eston Hemmings, the son of Thomas Jefferson's slave, Sally Hemmings.

Ralph Isaacs, colonial American Jewish merchant in New Haven, Connecticut in 1763.

Solomon Israel, colonial American Jewish distiller operating in New Haven, Connecticut in 1777.

Abraham Jacobs, colonial American Jewish distiller operating in New Haven, Connecticut in 1777.

Solomon Jacobs, colonial American Jewish legislator, Freemason, acting mayor of Richmond, Virginia, representative of Rothschilds Bank in Richmond.

Manuel Josephson, colonial American Jewish merchant in Philadelphia and New York, spokesman to George Washington for the Jewish community.

Baruch Judah, colonial American Jewish landowner, slave-holder in New York in the 1700s.

David Judah, colonial American Jewish merchant arrested for peddling in Hartford, Connecticut, on November 9, 1659.

Benjamin S. Judah, colonial American Jewish merchant, founder of the Tontine Coffee House in New York in the 1700s.

Hillel Judah, colonial American Jewish merchant and shohet (Jewish butcher) in New York and Newport, Rhode Island, in the 1700s.

Michael Judah, colonial American Jewish businessman in Norwalk and Hartford Connecticut, and New York. He left his property to the Jews of New York in his will dated 1786.

Naphtali Judah, colonial American Jewish merchant, printer, publisher, and Freemason, public defender of Judaism, member of the Shearith Israel Congregation in New York in the 1700s.

Samuel Judah, colonial American Jewish merchant, signer of the Non-Importation Agreement in Philadelphia in the 1700s.

Jean LaFitte, Jewish shipping merchant, privateer and slave-trader operatring out of New Orleans.

Elias Legarde (or Legardo), a Sephardic Jewish vigneron who arrived at Jamestown, Virginia, on the HMS Abigail in 1621, brought to Virginia by the trustees of the colony to supervise the cultivation of grapes for wine-making.

Aaron Levy, a Jewish merchant who in June 1779 bought off a Mr. Wetzel a tract in Haines township, Centre County, Pennsylvania, known as the Alexander Grant warranty. Upon this he laid out and planned the town of Aaronsburg, the town plan being recorded at Sunbury on October 4, 1786. Levy was interested with Robert Morris in the well-known speculation in lands in the western portion of the state which resulted so disastrously to the "financier of the Revolution".

Asser Levy (Van Swellem), Dutch-Jewish refugee from Recife, Brazil, who arrived in New Amsterdam in 1654 along with 23 other Jews. Levy was owned and operated a trading-post in Albany, New York, and served as the (kosher) butcher for the small Jewish community. He fought for Jewish rights in the Dutch colony and is famous for having secured the right of Jews to be admitted as Burghers and to serve guard duty for the colony.

Benjamin Levy, a Jewish merchant and trader in West Indian products, located in Baltimore, Maryland, circa 1773.

Hayman Levy, Jewish merchant and slave-trader who operated a trading post in New York where he acted as an agent for Phyn, Ellice & Co. of Schenectady, Montreal and London. Later set up a business distilling spirits in Newport Rhode Island.

Levy Andrew Levy, Jewish merchant and slave-trader in Lancaster, Pennsylvania during the 1700s, supplied smallpox infected blankets given to the Indians by the British in 1763, leading to a deadly outbreak of smallpox that devastated members of the Indian tribe.

Moses Levy, Jewish merchant and slave-trader operating out of New York and Newport, Rhode Island during the mid 1700s.

Samson Levy, a Jewish merchant living in Philadelphia, led a boycott in on October 25, 1765, against the importation of goods from England to the colonies by signing a resolution along with six other Philadelphia Jewish merchants in protest against the tax known as the Stamp Act.

Moses Lindo, a Jewish plantation owner and slave-holder who arrived in Charleston, South Carolina, from London in 1756, became actively engaged in commercial manufacturing of dye made from Indigo, making this one of the principal industries of the state. In 1762 he was appointed "Surveyor and Inspector-General of Indigo, Drugs, and Dyes."

Aaron Lopez, a Sephardic Jewish shipping merchant and slave trader, member of a cartel of whale-oil merchants and a manufacturer of spermaceti candles operating out of Newport, Rhode Island.

Nicholas Lowe, a Jew who was engaged in the business of distilling alcoholic spirits in Newport, Rhode Island in the 1700s.

Jacob Lumbrozo, a Jewish physician who arrived in Maryland on January 24, 1656, and who, in 1658, was tried for blasphemy, but was released by reason of the general amnesty granted in honor of the accession of Richard Cromwell (March 3, 1658). Letters of denization were issued to Lumbrozo September 10, 1663. Besides practising medicine, he also owned a plantation, engaged in trade with the Indians, and actively engaged in business with Jewish merchants in London.

Moses Malkhi, Jewish emmisary of the Safad community in Palestine, who visted with the Jews of the Shearith Israel Congregation of New York in 1759.

Levy Marks, colonial American Jewish merchant, tailor, member of the Mikveh Israel Congregation in Philadelphia during the 1700s; supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Michael Marks, colonial American Jewish merchant, importer, ship owner in Philadelphia in the 1700s.

Isaac Rodriguez Marques, colonial American Jewish merchant in New York in the 1600s.

Abraham A. Massias, American Jewish Freemason, army major and paymaster, born in Charleston, South Carolina in 1772.

Isaiah Mesa (also spelled "Masa" and "Mara"), "a Jew", is mentioned in the annals of Jacquet's administration as a participant in several lawsuits in Pennsylvania, in 1657.

Benjamin Bueno de Mesquita, colonial American Jewish merchant, Jamaican slave trader; at the time of his death in 1683, he was the first Jew to be buried in New York's Chatham Square cemetery.

Joseph Bueno de Mesquita, colonial American Jewish shipping merchant, West Indian slave-trader; he purchased the land that New York's Shearith Israel cemetery is located on before his own death in 1708.

Moses Michaels, colonial American Jewish shipping merchant and slave trader operating between New York, Boston and Curacao in the early 1700s.

Abigail Minis, colonial American Jewess merchant in Savannah, Georgia, in the 1700s.

Philip (Uri) Minis, a Jew, was the first child of a colonist born in the colony of Georgia, on July 11, 1734.

Philip Minis, colonial American Jewish commissary general and paymaster during the Revolutionary War, president of the Mikve Israel Congregation in Savannah, Georgia, during the 1700s.

Isaac Miranda, a Jew appointed in 1727 to act as an "agent to receive and collect the perquisites and rights of Admiralty" in Philadelphia and on June 19, 1727, he was appointed "deputy judge of the Court of Vice-Admiralty" - the first judicial office held by a Jew in the provinces. He was a large holder of land in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and his name is frequently mentioned in the archives of the colony. In 1730 (or 1720), the Indians of Lancaster made a complaint that he had acted unfairly toward them.

Abraham Moise, colonial American Jewish merchant, shopkeeper, slave-trader and auctioneer in Charleston, South Carolina, in the 1700s.

Judah Monis, North America's first college instructor of the Hebrew language, teaching at Harvard College from 1722 to 1760, and authored the first Hebrew textbook published in North America. Monis was also the first Jew to receive a college degree in the American colonies.

Isaac Monsanto, a Sephardic Jewish merchant plantation-owner and slave-trader in Louisianna during the 1700s.

Abraham Mordecai, colonial American Jewish merchant, Indian-trader, from Pennsylvania who settled in what is now Montgomery, Alabama, by 1785. Operated the first cotton gin in Alabama.

Jacob Mordecai, colonial American Jewish merchant, plantation-owner and slave-holder who had worked as a clerk under David Franks, the Jewish quartermaster to General George Washington, who supplied the Continental Army. After the war, Mordecai moved to Warrenton, North Carolina, where he became a tobacco merchant After his wife Judith died in childbirth, he remarried, to Judith's younger half-sister, Rebecca Myers, and opened the Warrenton Female Academy. Mordecai later sold the school and moved his family to Richmond, Virginia, where he purchased a plantation and slaves and became president of Beth Shalome Congregation.

Mordecai Mordicai, colonial Ameican Jewish merchant and distiller in Philadelphia, Pittsburg, Easton, Pennsylvania, and Richmond, Virginia, in the 1700s.

Samuel Mordecai, early American Jewish merchant and author in Richmond, Virginia.

Isaac Moses, colonial American Jewish merchant and broker in Boston and New York, a founder of the Bank of New York, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain; first president of Mikveh Israel Congregation in Philadelphia in the 1700s.

Meyer Moses, colonial American Jewish merchant in Charleston, South Carolina in the 1700s, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Solomon Moses, early American Jewish merchant in New York City in the 1700s.

John Moss, early American Jewish merchant and Freemason in Philadelphia in the 1700s.

Benjamin Myers, colonial American Jewish merchant in New York, Baltimore, Richmond and Nashville, Tennessee.

Jacob Myers, took the southeast corner of Gay and Baltimore streets and built an inn in Baltimore, Maryland in 1758.

John Myers, early American Jewish merchant, customs collector in Norfolk, Virginia.

Mordecai Myers, colonial American Jewish merchant, first postmaster of Georgetown, South Carolina, in the 1700s.

Mordecai Myers, early American Jewish legislator, Freemason, mayor of Schenectady, New York.

Moses Myers, early American Jewish banker and shipping-merchant in Norfolk, Virginia, operating a fleet of five vessels for his import-export business. In 1795 he was elected president of the Norfolk city council and in 1804 was commissioned colonel of a regiment of Virginia volunteers. He was appointed vice-consul for both Denmark and the Netherlands at Norfolk and in 1828, President John Quincy Adams appointed him collector of customs for the port of Norfolk.

Moses Myers, early American Jewish lawyer, court clerk in Georgetown, South Carolina.

Myer Myers, colonial American Jewish silversmith, merchant, Freemason in New York City in the 1700s supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Naphtal Hart Myers, colonial American Jewish merchant operating in New York, Newport, Philadelphia and Easton Pennsylvania, in the 1700s.

Samuel Myers, colonial American Jewish merchant and tobacco dealer in Richmond, Virginia in the 1700s.

Benjamin Nones, colonial American Jewish merchant, broker, politician, government interpreter, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain, noted for his political defense of his Jewishness. Lived in Philadelphia in the 1700s.

Moses Nunes, colonial American Jewish merchant, landowner, customs officer, Freemason, government interpreter to Indians. Lived in Savannah, Georgia in the 1700s.

Samuel Nunes, colonial American Jewish physician, landowner in Savannah, Georgia, in the 1700s.

Joseph Solomon Ottolenghe, an Italian Jew sent to Georgia in 1733 by the trustees of the colony as a superintendent of the silk industry there. Later served as a tax collector and as a member of the Georgia Assembly colonial legislature.

Benjamin Mendez Pacheco, colonial American Jewish merchant in New York in the early 1700s.

Joseph Palacios, colonial American Jewish landowner, slave-holder, and merchant operating in Louisianna, Mobile and Charleston in the 1700s.

Moses Levy Maduro Peixotto, early American Jewish merchant, Freemason and rabbi in New York city's Shearith Israel synagogue, born in 1763.

Jacob Philadelphia (born Jacob Meyer), colonial American Jewish astrologer, alchemist, occultist, necromancer, stage magician, Rosicrucian member, author of "Little Treatise on Strange and Suitable Feats" published in 1774.

Aaron Phillips, early American Jewish actor, playwright, born in 1778, manager of Philadelphia's Arch Street Theatre.

Jonas Phillips, (born Jonah Feibush), colonial American Jewish merchant, slave-trader, shohet (Jewish butcher), Freemason in New York in the 1700s. Signer of the Non-Importation Agreement, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain, enlisting in the Philadelphia militia in 1778. By the year 1782 was the second wealthiest Jew in the city.

Naphtali Moses Taylor Phillips, early American Jewish journalist, politician, owner of New York's "National Advocate" newspaper, born in 1773, lived in New York and Phladelphia.

Solomon Pietersen, a Dutch-Jewish merchant from Amsterdam who arrived in New Amsterdam as a refugee from Recife, Brazil, in 1654.

Abraham Pinto, colonial American Jewish merchant in New Haven, Connecticut, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Jacob Pinto, colonial American Jewish broker and merchant in New Haven, Connecticut, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Joseph Jeshurun Pinto, colonial American Jewish rabbi, hazan of Sherith Israel Congregation in New York City in the 1700s.

Solomon Pinto, colonial American Jewish merchant and warehouse owner in New Haven, Connecticut, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Isaac Pinto, colonial American Jewish wine merchant, signer of the Non-Importation Agreement, operated in New York, Norwalk, Connecticut, Charleston, South Carolina in th 1700s.

Cushman Polock, colonial American Jewish merchant, financier, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain; operated in Philadelphia and Savannah in the 1700s.

Isaac Polock, early American Jewish real estate developer and businessman. First Jewish resident to locate in Washington, D.C., also active in Savannah, Georgia, born in 1765.

Myer Polonies, colonial American Jewish merchant in New York in the 1700s, member of the Shearith Israel Congregation, principle benefactor of the New York Hebrew school that bears his name.

Michael Prager, colonial American Jewish merchant, broker, founder of the Insurance Company of North America in Philadelphia in the 1700s.

Abraham Rodrigues Rivera, colonial American Jewish merchant, ship-owner, slave-trader, active in New York and Newport, Rhode Island, died in 1765.

Jacob Rodrigues Rivera, colonial American Jewish whale-oil merchant, candle-manufacturer, ship-owner and slave-trader; supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain, died in Newpot, Rhode Island in 1789.

Philip Moses Russell, colonial American Jewish founder of Mikveh Israel Congregation in Philadelphia, surgeon's assistant, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Ezekiel Salomon, early American banker, cashier in New Orleans, born in Philadelphia in 1778.

Haym Salomon, colonial American Jewish merchant, broker for slave-traders and overseas merchants, financier, Freemason, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain; bankrolled the American army $20,000 to continue fighting the revolution. On December 23, 1783, Salomon was among a number of Jews who protested to have the Pennsylvania Council of Censors remove the religious test oath requiring each member of the Assembly to affirm his belief in the divine inspiration of the New Testament, saying: "I am a Jew; it is my own nation; I do not despair that we shall obtain every other privilege that we aspire to enjoy along with our fellow-citizens." The law was subsequently changed, and all civil restrictions against the Jews were removed.

Francis Salvador, colonial American Jewish plantation owner, slave-holder in South Carolina, nephew of Joseph Salvador; first Jew elected to public office as a member of the Provincial Congress in 1774. Supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain, first Jew killed in the rebellion. Received an inheritance of £60,000, engaged in business with his uncle Joseph wealthy DaCosta relatives in London.

Joseph Salvador, colonial American Jewish merchant, landowner, member of the Royal Society, director of the British East India Company, purchased 100,000 acres of land near Fort Ninety-six for £2,000. Twenty years later Salvador sold 60,000 acres of land for £3,000 to thirteen London Sephardic Jews. This land was known as the "Jews' Lands" purchased as part of a plan to settle Jews and their family members in the New World.

Abraham Mendes Seixas, colonial American Jewish merchant in New York,Philadelphia and Charleston; supporter of the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Benjamin Mendes Seixas, colonial American Jewish merchant, one of the founders of the New York Stock Exchange.

Gershom Mendes Seixas, colonial American Jewish clergyman. First rabbi born in North America, parnas (president) of New York's Shearith Israel Congregation, founder of Hebra Hased Ve Amet Hebrew school, trustee of Columbia College, supporter of the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Isaac Mendes Seixas, colonial American Jewish merchant in New York in the 1600s.

Moses Mendes Seixas, colonial American Jewish merchant, broker, served as parnas (president) of Newport Rhode Island's Touro Synagogue, was a founding member of the nation's oldest Jewish Masonic Lodge (King David in Newport) and Grand Master of the Masonic Order of Rhode Island. In 1795 Moses Seixas organized the Newport Bank of Rhode Island and served as its first cashier until his death in 1809.

Benjamin Sheftall, colonial American Jewish settler, merchant, landowner, founding member of the Hebrew Union Society and Mikveh Israel Congregation in Savannah, Georgia.

Levi Sheftall, colonial American Jewish merchant, landowner, cattleman, shohet (Jewish butcher), supporter of the colonial rebellion against Great Britain.

Mordecai Sheftall, colonial American Jewish merchant, plantation-owner, slave-holder, cattleman, Freemason in Savannah, Georgia. In 1768 the Georgia Houses of Assembly appointed him Inspector of Tanned Leather for the Port of Savannah. He was a leading protestor against the Stamp Act and a member of the Savannah Parochial Committee which called for colonial rebellion against Great Britain. During the Revolutionary War, Sheftall was appointed Commissary General of Purchases and Issues to the Georgia militia in 1777.

Moses Sheftall, colonial American Jewish physician, alderman, port warden, legislator, judge, Freemason in Savannah, Georgia; founder of the Georgia Medical Society.

Sheftall Sheftall, colonial American Jewish merchant, attorney, in Savannah and Charleston, supporter of the colonial rebellion against Great Britain, supplier of goods to the American army.

Joseph Simon, colonial American Jewish Indian-trader, land speculator and distiller and merchant in Pennsylvania in the 1700s. Supplied goods to the army during the French and Indian War. Purchased land from Indians in Illinois territory.

Abraham Simons, colonial American Jewish merchant and Georgia legislator, supported the colonial rebellion against Great Britain, member of the Augusta Jockey Club.

Joseph Simson, colonial American Jewish merchant, Hebrew scholar, officer of Shearith Israel Congregation of New York.

Nathan Simson, colonial American Jewish merchant, ship-owner, slave-trader in New York in the 1700s.

Sampson Simson, Sr., colonial American Jewish merchant, ship-owner, slave-trader, founding m,ember of the Chamber of Commerce in New York during the 1700s.

Solomon Joseph Simson, colonial American Jewish merchant, businessman, Freemason, founding member of the Chamber of Commerce in New York in the 1700s.

Ezekiel Solomon, colonial American Jewish merchant and Indian-trader in Montreal, Canada, and Mackinaw, Michigan. Captured by Indians during the Pontiac uprising, aided the British army.

Levi Solomon, a Jew from York, Pennsylvania, who opened a bank in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1796.

Levi Solomons, colonial American Jewish merchant, Indian trader in Albany, New York, Montreal, Canada and Michigan. Prosecuted by the British for supplying goods to the American army during the colonial rebellion.

Joseph Tobias, colonial American Jewish settler, Spanish language interpreter, founding member and parnas (president) of Beth Elohim synagogue in Charleston, South Carolina, in the 1700s.

Isaac Touro. colonial American Jewish merchant, slave-trader, rabbi in Newport, Rhode Island, in the 1700s.

Simon Valentine, one of four Jews who applied for citizenship in South Carolina in 1697, he became the first documented Jewish landowner in South Carolina, which entitled him to vote. In 1703 a protest was raised against "Jew strangers" voting in an election for members of the Assembly.

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